Website for exchange in the EuSoCo project

Archive for August, 2009

Code Civil – Avant-Projet de Reforme du Droit des Obligations (P. Catala, 2005)

August 13, 2009 By: Admin Category: Contract Law

Avant-Projet de Reforme du Droit des Obligations (Articles 1101 A 1386 Du Code Civil) et du Droit de la Prescription (Articles 2234 à 2281 du Code Civil)

Rapport à Monsieur Pascal Clément Garde des Sceaux, Ministre de la Justice 22 Septembre 2005

1. Le bicentenaire du Code civil a connu un immense retentissement dans la plupart des pays ayant la codification en partage, quelle que fût leur langue. Il donna lieu à d’innombrables manifestations, dont émergèrent, bien qu’elles fussent de taille et d’inspirations diverses, les noms de Portalis et de Carbonnier. Le fondateur et le rénovateur avaient en commun la culture historique, une connaissance approfondie des coutumes et des traditions qui forment « l’esprit des siècles », et le sentiment qu’ « il est utile de conserver tout ce qu’il n’est pas nécessaire de détruire ». Ils n’étaient pas des faiseurs de systèmes, mais ne doutaient pas, cependant, que la loi soit, avant la jurisprudence, mère de l’ordre juridique. « La science du législateur consiste à trouver, dans chaque matière, les principes les plus favorables au bien commun ; la science du magistrat est de mettre ces principes en action, de les ramifier, de les étendre, par une application sage et raisonnée, aux hypothèses privées » (Discours préliminaire). De ces deux noms accolés s’exhalait une double certitude : que le Code de 1804 constituait toujours un modèle idéal de législation civile ; qu’il était possible de le rénover sans dégrader sa structure ni sa forme. Jean Carbonnier l’avait démontré en transfigurant le livre premier avec le bonheur que l’on sait. Mais par-delà les propos agréables qui sonnèrent aux oreilles françaises, un autre message, le plus souvent tacite, nous était adressé ; il disait : qu’attendez-vous pour continuer la modernisation de votre code ?

2. A cette tâche, et dans la perspective du grand rendez-vous de 2004, une poignée de civilistes universitaires s’étaient attelés un an plus tôt. Le déclic provint d’un colloque organisé par la faculté de Sceaux qui mettait en parallèle le droit français avec les « principes européens du droit des contrats » issus des travaux de M. Landö. Il paraissait en ressortir que si, sur certains points, notre droit était ou pouvait entrer en convergence avec la trame proposée pour l’Europe, sur d’autres points, cette dernière contrevenait davantage à notre tradition nationale. Dans la conjoncture du moment, ceci méritait à l’évidence d’être approfondi……

Click here to read ‘Code Civil – Avant-Projet de Reforme du Droit des Obligations’ (2005)


Transformation of Contract law and civil justice in new EU member countries (N. Reich, 2004)

August 13, 2009 By: Admin Category: Consumer Law

The Example of the Baltic States, Hungary and Poland – N. Reich, 2004

Instead of trying to analyse European private law under EU influence as a whole, I limit myself to the transformation of contract law because the discussion is most advanced here, and because it is an area where I can contribute most from my research and teaching. My concept of European contract law is a functional one and has been described elsewhere. I distinguish between three main functions of modern European contract law, namely: Autonomy; Regulation; Information.

I want to use this approach in analysing the transformation process of several – not all – new Member countries, namely the Baltic States, Hungary, and Poland. Under autonomy I understand the fundamental function of any contract law in a market economy like the one enshrined by the EC and EU Treaties, namely to make economic transactions by subjects of private laws (natural persons including consumers, business entities, the state acting in its “dominium” function) as secure and efficient as possible, to enforce them effectively under the rule “pacta sunt servanda”, once the conditions of a “free meeting of the minds” are met. At the same time I am convinced that even in a liberal economic and legal context, autonomy is not without borders; therefore, its inherent restrictions have to be made the subject matter of reflection, most notably by the principle of “good faith”…..

Click here to read ‘Transformation of Contract law and civil justice in new EU member countries’ (N. Reich, 2004)

does the eu really need its five presidents

August 13, 2009 By: Admin Category: Consumer Law

I’m Discount Wholesale Authentic Jerseys Free Shipping not even taking that leg that far up. And it’s already starting to burn, right here. I don’t even need a weight. But first, we go back to sports and news about safety that you might find surprising. Cheap Jerseys When you think of head injuries in sports you probably think football because that issue has been in the news increasingly because of the deaths and injuries of former players, which are believed to be linked to chronic head trauma coming from repeated blows to the head, which are part of the sport. Now, though, researchers at Boston University School of Medicine say former Major League Baseball player, Ryan Freel, was suffering from the degenerative brain disease CTE.

And your arms don’t ever think that because this is one, the next time it’s one. They just switch. So, the way I explain this to people is, don’t ever try to figure out which hand is what Cheap Baseball Jerseys China number. The CBS Television Network is just about to end a season as the most watched network in the country. It will be the seventh consecutive year and the 12th time in 13 years that we have achieved this feat. We are 1 in viewers, Cheap Jerseys from china and once again, we are up.

There’s a reason the movie starts there, and not earlier. It’s because the early part, where we go from one zombie to millions, doesn’t make any sense. If you let the creeping buzzkill of logic into the zombie party, you realize the zombies would all be re dead long before you even got a chance to fire up that chainsaw motorcycle you’ve been working on.

Now let’s save our first Wholesale Discount football Jerseys From China little web Wholesale Discount NFL Jerseys page here by going up to the very top office button and selecting save as. Now that that is saved I am going to minimize word and open up my first site. My name is Dave Andrews and I have just showed you how to create your first website..

Zinedine ZidaneZinedine Zidane is probably the most elegant and graceful footballers we have ever had the joy of witnessing. His technique was impeccable and watching him play was an incredible thing. He spent his peak years at Real Madrid and Juventus where he won trophies with both and at one point was deservedly the worlds most expensive player.

During these tests, Discount NFL Jerseys so the story goes, Diana’s eggs were harvested and fertilised with Prince Charles’s sperm. The tests proved successful, and the engagement of Charles and Diana was duly announced. Charles, asked if they were in love, responded with his famously cynical observation, ‚Whatever in love means‘ and the embryos were ordered to be destroyed.

Parliament Study explores the values underlying the DCFR (Hesselink, 2008)

August 13, 2009 By: Admin Category: DCFR

The values underlying the DCFR: what role for fairness and „social justice“? (EP, IMCO, Hesselink, Sept 2008)

This study provides an in-depth analysis of the provisions of the draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), in order to assess if the DCFR perceives contract law only as a tool for regulating private law relations between equally strong parties or if it contains elements of ’social justice‘ in favour of consumers, victims of discrimination, small and medium sized enterprises and other possibly weaker parties to contracts. After introducing the notion of social justice and its relationship to European contract law, this study explores the key social justice issues in the DCFR, their content and sources of inspiration. Finally, the last chapter draws some conclusions on the question if a balance has been struck among conflicting values and in particular between, on the one hand, individual private autonomy as expressed in the idea of freedom of contract, and on the other hand, principles of protection of weaker contracting parties responding to demands for social solidarity.

Click here to read ‘The values underlying the DCFR: what role for fairness and „social justice?’ (EP, IMCO, Hesselink, Sept 2008)

Visit a legitimate TV streaming website

August 12, 2009 By: Admin Category: DCFR

Putting in golf is probably the closest to dart throwing in terms of the needs for a consistent set up, action and technique. Golf coaches emphasize the need to get into a stable body position and to only move your arms in a pendulum motion to ensure a consistent stroke. wholesale nfl jerseys The controversy about the long putters and ‚belly‘ putters is all about players trying to find ways to cement the pendulum action and to take as much variability out of the swing as possible..

Visit a legitimate TV streaming website. Avoid viewing pirated sites and illegally obtained content over the Internet. Make sure the site you use is legitimate and has permission to stream its content. FILE This April 10, 2016, file photo provided by the Orleans Parish Sheriff’s Office shows Cardell Hayes. Hayes was convicted of manslaughter Sunday, Dec. 11, in the fatal shooting of retired New Orleans Saints defensive leader Will Smith.

Find your school Arcadia Arshag Dickranian Armenian School Banning Basset Bell Beverly Hills Bishop Montgomery Bonita Calabasas Campbell Hall Cathedral Chadwick School Chaffey Chaminade Charter Oak Chatsworth Cleveland Colony Corona del Mar Crespi Carmelite Daniel Pearl Magnet Diamond Bar Dominguez Dymally Eagle Rock Edison El Modena El Rancho El Segundo Fairfax Wholesale NHL Jerseys China Flintridge Sacred Heart Foothill Technology Fountain Valley Francis Poly Etiwanda Wholesale Cheap Jerseys China Garfield Golden Valley Granada Hills Harvard Westlake Hawthorne Highland Hall Cheap Authentic Jerseys Hollywood Hoover Immaculate Heart Irvine James Monroe John Marshall John football jerseys North Jserra Catholic Kennedy LAUSD / USC Cinematic Arts and Engineering Leuzinger Libra Academy Long Beach Poly Los Alamitos Louisville Loyola Lycee International Mater Dei Milken Mira Costa Mission Viejo Newmark Newport Harbor Notre Dame Oak Park Oaks Christian Ojai Valley Orange County School of Arts Pacific Hills Palisades Palos Verdes Palos Verdes Peninsula Providence Rancho Dominguez Riverside Poly Rosary San Dimas San Marino Santa Monica Servite Sierra Canyon South Pasadena St. Genevieve St.

It clear you think c sections are awesome because you had successful ones. But try to remember this is major abdominal surgery. It not like having a mole removed, they yanking a human out of Wholesale Discount NFL Jerseys Free Shipping your stomach. Cheap Wholesale hockey Jerseys Free Shipping I don know how one would do cooking in such a thing as fashioned. The polystyrene will become soft and possibly melt partially if a 100dC object is placed on it. Avoiding that is trivial, but I don understand the practicality of putting partially heated food in a box without a heat source and expecting it to cook.

Buoyed by regular London derbies

August 12, 2009 By: Admin Category: Contract theory

Buoyed by regular London derbies, and matches against teams such as Manchester United and Liverpool,cheap football jerseys china Wimbledon averaged 17,000 in their last three seasons in the top flight. The first season after relegation (and before the boycott promoted by the move to Milton Keynes) they averaged less than 8,000. The casual fan had melted away and they were back to the hardcore..

That put Roger Goodell, the NFL Commissioner, in a quandary. He came into the job in 2006 determined to clean up the League’s image especially as regards off the field Cheap hockey Jerseys From China crimes and misdemeanours. Every season brought its crop of players arrested for drunk driving, substance abuse, domestic violence and even firearms offences, not that it seemed to put many fans off a violent sport that logically enough attracts its share of violent Discount Wholesale football Jerseys men..

The refinement procedure corrects non linear shift in the chromatograms by using robust spline fitting. Dividing the individual intensities with the average intensity of the LC MS run normalized the peptide intensities. Peak picking, LC alignment and intensity normalization procedures were verified by manually checking the raw data, including, in several cases, the internal standard peptides.

You need to have a plan before you start a business. Why is a business plan so important? nfl jerseys cheap Because a properly constructed business plan is like a roadmap to your goals a GPS if you will.Having a business plan will give you a much clearer vision of your goals and objectives, and will keep you on track and enable you to achieve your goals that much faster.One caveat about business plans: They aren’t written in stone, and more than likely, you will have to change or adjust your plan multiple times along the way to keep yourself on track. That’s just part of the process.While paid marketing methods are fine Cheap Wholesale MLB Jerseys China for the short term, for the Wholesale Cheap Soccer Jerseys From China long term, organic SEO (non paid traffic that originates from search engines) is what separates the wheat from the chaff.

Someone is a professional athlete, a blue collar worker or homeless, our staff will treat them with respect and we expect the same, Neil said in a statement. Of who they are, if they endanger my deputies, our medical staff or themselves, we will take action. He then spit on a female nurse’s hand while being booked into the jail, according to court records..

The service is provided not just to residential customers, but also the hotels, restaurants, hospitals, etc. Broadcast Wholesale NHL Jerseys Free Shipping centers of this satellite TV provider are located in Los Angeles, Colorado and Castle Rock. DIRECTV also provides service to customers in South America where is known by the name ‚DIRECTV Latin America‘.

Vertragsanpassung – Imprévision, Hardship und Störung der Geschäftsgrundlage

August 12, 2009 By: Admin Category: Contract theory

Pacta sunt servanda und die Wege zur Anpassung des Vertrages im deutsch-französischen Rechtsverkehr.

Click here to read ‘Imprévision, Hardship und Störung der Geschäftsgrundlage’ (In German by E. Cashin-Ritaine)


Like most financial commentators and pundits

August 12, 2009 By: Admin Category: Credit Law

Like most financial commentators and pundits, I have an outlook for the economy and the markets as we begin the New Year.replica oakleys Over the last few Mondays I have shared my perspective and what trends should be place in the equity markets during 2015. My first piece covered why the Euro will continue to fall in 2015 and the implications from that trend.

It also seemed like a jab at Jimmy Graham, who was responsible for delaying a game last season in order for the goal posts to be leveled after dunking. St Louis Rams head coach Jeff Fisher was one of the ones in favor of the rule, and said „Last year, we had an incident in one of the games where there was a dunk and the goalpost was tilted. The game was shutdown for about 25 minutes until they could get the goalpost corrected.

Record Your Resolutions As much as we adore our teenagers, they could simply utilize Wholesale Discount Soccer Jerseys a little change. Finish espresso or oats jars for every visitor to fill with their New Year resolutions. At the point when the year arrives at an end, they can open them to see what they accomplished..

After THAT I’ll cover the whole thing in a fabric that breaths well. cheap oakleys outlet I’m hoping that when I walk the air outside will pass through the fabric and into the space created by the rings cooling me off. Again thanks for the ideas. That wasn’t an isolated incident either: According to the Zoological Wildlife Foundation, white faced capuchins routinely attack intruders with sticks, rocks and on one occasion, even a smaller squirrel monkey was hurled at an observer. It didn’t Wholesale NHL Jerseys China even hesitate the monkey just plucked Wholesale Cheap Baseball Jerseys up and whipped a tiny version of itself at the nearest threat. That’s like seeing somebody on your lawn, so you immediately start hurling your children at him until he gets back on the sidewalk..

Ask debate alumni to come to a meeting to help students get started. Look for available debate workshops or camps to recommend to students. Have students observe a tournament before entering one. The All Stars who were barely Wholesale Cheap Authentic Jerseys Free Shipping seen or heard from again.http://www.cheapoakleys2013.comIt’s a frat party and everybody’s up for it. Major League Baseball has never been better at least that’s what Wholesale Discount hockey Jerseys China somebody will tell you and sell you..

PASS TO RUN: Montgomery got the start in the backfield with running backs Eddie Lacy (ankle) and James Starks (knee) out. He and Cobb have similar, versatile skill sets. With a short week to prepare, the Packers didn’t have much time to get newly acquired running back Knile Davis up to speed on the playbook.

Position of the European Commission on European Contract Law from 2001 (German version)

August 11, 2009 By: Admin Category: Contract Law, DCFR, Social Justice

It is strange that the previous link to contract law on the Consumers part of the Commision’s website is no longer working and the documents no longer available on the SANCO website. The document from 2001 is nevertheless reproduced here in German.

Stellungnahmen Zur Mitteilung Über Das Europäische Vertragsrecht (2001)

Nach der Veröffentlichung der Mitteilung zum europäischen Vertragsrecht haben der Rat und das Europäische Parlament im November 2001 zu der Mitteilung Stellung genommen. Ferner sind bei der Kommission _ bislang _ 160 Beiträge aus interessierten Kreisen eingegangen (siehe Anlagen). Dieses Interesse der Gemeinschaftsorgane und betroffener Kreise zeigt, wie wichtig die mit der Mitteilung ausgelöste Debatte ist.

Schlüsselt man die Beiträge nach Herkunftsländern auf, so ist bemerkenswert, dass die meisten Beiträge aus Deutschland und dem Vereinigten Königreich stammen. Aus einigen Mitgliedstaaten sind gar keine oder nur wenige Beiträge eingegangen. Zahlreiche internationale Interessengruppen haben sich ebenfalls an der Anhörung beteiligt. Die meisten Beiträge kommen aus Hochschul- und Wirtschaftskreisen, doch haben sich auch viele Vertreter der Rechtspraxis beteiligt. (mehr …)


From Social Justice to Access Justice : the European Challenge (Hans-W. Micklitz, 2008)

August 11, 2009 By: Admin Category: Social Justice

Preliminary remark: This is a paper on the many faces of social justice in private law. It intends to highlight the differences between the Member States’ concepts of social justice which now clash with a particular European concept. The aim of the paper is not meant, however, to defend national cultures and traditions per se. It aims at analysing the ongoing changes which should force us in light of the ‘intuitively felt cracks in civil society’ to rethink national patterns of social justice and maybe social justice as such. Emphasis is laid on private law.

The Member States have developed over the last century their proper model of social justice in private law. Each model is inherently linked to national culture and tradition. However, all models have in common that it is for the (social welfare) state to use the law as a means to protect the weaker party against the stronger party, the employee against the employer, the tenant against the landlord and the consumer against the supplier. Social justice is therefore bound to the idea of redistribution of wealth from the richer to the poorer part of the society. It is here where the idea of social welfare state is located. (mehr …)